Critical Thinking Basic Theory And Instructional Structures Of The Brain

Critical Thinking: Basic Theory and Instructional Structures Handbook

Author: Richard W. Paul, Linda Elder
Publisher: Foundation for Critical Thinking
Copyright: 1999, revised 2000 edition
Pages: 148 Dimensions: 8.75" x 11" x .5" Weight: 1 lbs.
Binding: Spiral w/Soft

This handbook provides an outline of the most fundamental theory of critical thinking. In addition, it provides ideas for incorporating the theory into the structure of the curriculum. Included is theory on the elements of reasoning, intellectual standards, intellectual traits, content as a mode of thinking, the affective dimension of thinking, along with structures for student self-assessment, grading policies, and general tactical/ structural recommendations. This handbook is useful for understanding the basic theory, as well as for developing a curriculum with critical thinking at its very foundation.


This study was conducted to determine whether or not there is a significant difference in Physics achievement of ordinary school students (i) between those who were exposed to the Brain-Based Teaching Method (BBTM) versus those who followed the conventional teaching method (CTM), and (ii) between males and females who were exposed to the BBTM. The effects of the BBTM within the targeted context were assessed using a quasi-experimental research approach involving 90 students from two ordinary schools in Penang, Malaysia. Data collected through the Physics Achievement Test (PAT) were then analyzed descriptively and inferentially. The results showed that students who were exposed to the BBTM obtained a significantly higher mean score in the PAT compared to those who followed the CTM. It was also found that there was no significant difference in the PAT mean scores between male and female students in the BBTM group. These findings indicate that BBTM was effective in improving Physics achievement as well as in reducing the gender gap in Physics achievement among ordinary school students.

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