Using Numbers Essay Writing

You probably see the date written down (or displayed on a screen) dozens of times every day. You might even have to write it out yourself if you’re booking an appointment or organising your schedule.

Despite this, most of us give very little thought to how we write the date. In academic writing and other formal contexts, however, it’s important to use a clear and consistent format.

Different Formats

The most important thing to remember when writing the date is that, in the UK and throughout most of the world, we favour a day-month-year format (otherwise known as the little-endian sequence). This can be presented in numerous ways, including:

  • Day + Month (e.g. 21 April)
  • Day + Month + Year (e.g., 21 April 2016)
  • Numbers Only (e.g. 21/04/2016)

There are also variations to how these can be presented, such as by including a comma after the month (e.g. 21 April, 2016) or using a superscript letters after the day: e.g. 21st April, 2nd February, 13th June, etc.

Sometimes, the month in the date can be shortened to save space. For example:

14 January 2012 → 14 Jan 2012

9 October → 9 Oct

However, generally in formal writing it’s better to use the longer format for clarity. Likewise, when including a date in an essay you should usually write it out (e.g. 21 April 2016) rather than use the numbers-only style.

Check Your Style Guide and Be Consistent

Since there are various ways of writing the date, you should always check your university’s style guide to see if a preferred format is specified. If it doesn’t offer any particular advice, simply pick a clear format that suits you and make sure to use it consistently for all dates in your essay.

UK vs. American Dates

The other thing to keep in mind when writing (and reading) dates is how the US date format differs from ours. In America, dates use a month-day-year format, which can lead to problems when they are written out in numbers only as days and months get confused:

UK DateUS Date
07 April 2016 (07/04/2016)April 07 2016 (04/07/2016)
11th December 2013 (11/12/13)December 11th 2013 (12/11/13)
4th January 1945 (4/1/1945)January 4th 1945 (1/4/1945)

 

As you can see above, the date ‘07/04/2016’ represents the 7th of April 2016 in the UK, but the same numbers indicate the 4th of July in America! You should therefore take care about which format you use when writing for different audiences.

Writing Numbers

Except for a few basic rules, spelling out numbers vs. using figures (also called numerals) is largely a matter of writers' preference. Again, consistency is the key.

Policies and philosophies vary from medium to medium. America's two most influential style and usage guides have different approaches: The Associated Press Stylebook recommends spelling out the numbers zero through nine and using numerals thereafter—until one million is reached. Here are four examples of how to write numbers above 999,999 in AP style: 1 million; 20 million; 20,040,086; 2.7 trillion.

The Chicago Manual of Style recommends spelling out the numbers zero through one hundred and using figures thereafter—except for whole numbers used in combination with hundred, thousand, hundred thousand, million, billion, and beyond (e.g., two hundred; twenty-eight thousand; three hundred thousand; one million). In Chicago style, as opposed to AP style, we would write four hundred, eight thousand, and twenty million with no numerals—but like AP, Chicago style would require numerals for 401; 8,012; and 20,040,086.

This is a complex topic, with many exceptions, and there is no consistency we can rely on among blogs, books, newspapers, and magazines. This chapter will confine itself to rules that all media seem to agree on.

Rule 1. Spell out all numbers beginning a sentence.

Examples:
Twenty-three hundred sixty-one victims were hospitalized.
Nineteen fifty-six was quite a year.

Note: The Associated Press Stylebook makes an exception for years.

Example:1956 was quite a year.

Rule 2a. Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine.

Examples:
Forty-three people were injured in the train wreck.
Twenty-seven of them were hospitalized.

Rule 2b. Hyphenate all written-out fractions.

Examples:
We recovered about two-thirds of the stolen cash.
One-half is slightly less than five-eighths.

However, do not hyphenate terms like a third or a half.


Rule 3a. With figures of four or more digits, use commas. Count three spaces to the left to place the first comma. Continue placing commas after every three digits. Important: do not include decimal points when doing the counting.

Examples:
1,054 people
$2,417,592.21

Note: Some choose not to use commas with four-digit numbers, but this practice is not recommended.

Rule 3b. It is not necessary to use a decimal point or a dollar sign when writing out sums of less than a dollar.

Not Advised:He had only $0.60.

Better:
He had only sixty cents.
OR
He had only 60 cents.

Rule 3c. Do not add the word "dollars" to figures preceded by a dollar sign.

Incorrect: I have $1,250 dollars in my checking account.
Correct: I have $1,250 in my checking account.

Rule 4a. For clarity, use noon and midnight rather than 12:00 PM and 12:00 AM.

NOTE

AM and PM are also written A.M. and P.M., a.m. and p.m., and am and pm. Some put a space between the time and AM or PM.

Examples:
8 AM
3:09 P.M.
11:20 p.m.

Others write times using no space before AM or PM.

Example:
8AM
3:09P.M.
11:20p.m.

For the top of the hour, some write 9:00 PM, whereas others drop the :00 and write 9 PM (or 9 p.m., 9pm, etc.).

Rule 4b. Using numerals for the time of day has become widely accepted.

Examples:
The flight leaves at 6:22 a.m.
Please arrive by 12:30 sharp.

However, some writers prefer to spell out the time, particularly when using o'clock.

Examples:
She takes the four thirty-five train.
The baby wakes up at five o'clock in the morning.


Rule 5. Mixed fractions are often expressed in figures unless they begin a sentence.

Examples:
We expect a 5 1/2 percent wage increase.
Five and one-half percent was the expected wage increase.

Rule 6. The simplest way to express large numbers is usually best.

Example:twenty-three hundred (simpler than two thousand three hundred)

Large round numbers are often spelled out, but be consistent within a sentence.

Consistent:You can earn from one million to five million dollars.
Inconsistent:You can earn from one million dollars to 5 million dollars.
Inconsistent:You can earn from $1 million to five million dollars.

Rule 7. Write decimals using figures. As a courtesy to readers, many writers put a zero in front of the decimal point.

Examples:
The plant grew 0.79 inches last year.
The plant grew only 0.07 inches this year.

Rule 8a. When writing out a number of three or more digits, the word and is not necessary. However, use the word and to express any decimal points that may accompany these numbers.

Examples:
one thousand one hundred fifty-four dollars
one thousand one hundred fifty-four dollars and sixty-one cents

Simpler:eleven hundred fifty-four dollars and sixty-one cents

Rule 8b. When writing out numbers above 999, do not use commas.

Incorrect: one thousand, one hundred fifty-four dollars, and sixty-one cents
Correct: one thousand one hundred fifty-four dollars and sixty-one cents

Rule 9. The following examples are typical when using figures to express dates.

Examples:
the 30th of June, 1934
June 30, 1934
(no -th necessary)

Rule 10. When spelling out decades, do not capitalize them.

Example:During the eighties and nineties, the U.S. economy grew.


Rule 11. When expressing decades using figures, it is simpler to put an apostrophe before the incomplete numeral and no apostrophe between the number and the s.

Example:During the '80s and '90s, the U.S. economy grew.

Some writers place an apostrophe after the number:

Example:During the 80's and 90's, the U.S. economy grew.

Awkward:During the '80's and '90's, the U.S. economy grew.

Rule 12. You may also express decades in complete numerals. Again, it is cleaner to avoid an apostrophe between the year and the s.

Example:During the 1980s and 1990s, the U.S. economy grew.

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