Unit 10 Nutrition And Diets Assignment Sheet Answers To Interview

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1 Unit 10 Nutrition and Diets

2 10:1 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Most people know there is a relationship between food and good healthMany do not know what nutrients are needed to maintain good healthBecause of this, many people are not able to choose proper foods for optimum healthHealth care workers must understand basic nutrition

3 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Nutrition: all body processes relating to foodInclude digestion, metabolism, circulation and eliminationHelp the body to use food for energy, health and growthNutritional status: state or condition of one’s nutritionRole of nutrition in physical, mental, emotional, and psychological affectsGoal is to maintain wellness – good health with optimal body function

4 Effects of Good Nutrition
Healthy appearanceGood attitudeProper sleep and bowel habitsHigh energy levelEnthusiasm and freedom from anxietyLarge role in determining height, weight, strength, skeletal and muscular development, physical agility, resistance to disease, appetite, posture, complexion, mental ability, emotional and psychological health

5 Effects of BAD Nutrition
HypertensionHigh blood pressure, caused by excess of fatty/salty foodAtherosclerosisNarrowed arteries, caused by excess of saturated fats and cholesterol (LDL)OsteoporosisPorous, brittle bones, caused by deficiencies in mineralsMalnutritionState of poor nutrition, caused by poor diet or illnessHypertension can lead to diseases of heart, blood vessels and kidneysAtherosclerosis fats build up on inner surface of blood vessels (plaque); can lead to heart attack or strokeOsteoporosis caused by deficiencies in calcium, magnesium and vitamin dMalnutrition symptoms include fatigue, depression, poor posture, weight issues, poor complexion, lifeless hair, irritability, deficiency diseases, poor muscular and skeletal development, reduced mental abilities, even death. Malnutrition most likely to affect individuals in extreme poverty, patients undergoing extreme drug treatments, infants, children, adolescents and elderly

6 10:2 Essential NutrientsEssential Nutrients – chemical elements in foods used by body to perform many different body functionsCarbohydratesMajor source of energy, easy to break down during cellular respirationEx – starches, sugars, bread, cereal, pasta, crackersCellulose – fibrous, indigestible carb, allows for regular bowel movementsProvides heat and energy, fiber for good digestion and elimination

7 Essential Nutrients Lipids
Storage form of energy for our body, difficult to break downProvide insulation, cushioning, help maintain body temp, carry fat soluble vitamins to tissuesEx – saturated and unsaturated fats, butter, margarine, cheese, egg yolkCholesterol – important lipid, used to make steroid hormones, vitamin D, cell membraneFat soluble vitamins – a, d, e and kProvide fatty acids needed for growth and development, provide heat and energy, carry fat-sol vits to cellsSaturated – solid at room temp, eggs, whole milk, butter, cheeseUnsaturated – usually soft or liquid at room temp, veggie oil, margarineCholesterol – fat-like substance, part of cell membrane, helps to make steroid hormones, vit d and bile acids. Found in egg yolk, fatty meats, shellfish, butter, cream, cheese. Excess may contribute to artherosclerosis.* Should limit intake of foods containing fats from animal sources

8 Essential Nutrients Vitamins Proteins
Structural component of body as well as enzymesBuild and repair tissue, regulate body functions, provides some energy and heatMade up of amino acids“Complete proteins” contain the amino acids our body doesn’t produceVitaminsHelp enzyme activity, used for metabolism, tissue building and body process regulationCan be water or fat solubleSee table 10-2 (pg 232)ProteinsBuild and repair tissue, provide hat and energy, help produce antibodies, make up part of cell membrane. Complete proteins usually animal foods. Incomplete proteins usually vegetable proteins  cereal, soy, beans, peas, corn, nutsVitamins- Regulate body functions, build and repair body tissue, metabolism, allow body to use energy provided by carbs, fats and proteins. Only need a small amount of vitamins. An excess can be dangerous. Deficiency can cause poor health8

9 Essential Nutrients Minerals Water
Inorganic compound essential for lifeRegulate body fluids, contribute to growth and tissue buildingNeeded in small amountsTable 10-3 (pg 232)WaterFound in all body tissuesNeeded for digestion, absorption, movement of wastesNeed to drink 6 – 8 glasses of water a dayWater- Carries nutrients and wastes to and from body cells, regulates body functions, makes up blood plasma9

10 10:3 Utilization of Nutrients
Digestion – process where body breaks down food, changes food chemically, moves food through digestive systemMechanical – food broken down by teeth & moved through GI tract by peristalsisPeristalsis – wavelike motion of digestive tract musclesChemical – food broken down by digestive juices secreted by mouth, stomach, small intestine and pancreasAbsorption – nutrients absorbed into small intestine capillariesNutrients carried through body by circulatory systemWater, salts and some vitamins absorbed in large intestineBefore body is able to use the nutrients contained in food, our body must break down the food to obtain the nutrients, then absorb the nutrients into the circulatory systemMouth – amylase changes starch to maltoseStomach – hydrochloric acid, pepsin breaks down proteins. Lipase emulsifies fats.SI – produces enzymes, prepares foods for absorption, lactase converts lactose, maltase converts maltose, sucrase converts sucrose, peptidases break down proteins (liver makes bile, gallbladder stores bile and releases it into si to emulsify fats)Pancreas – releases enzymes into small I. Pancreatic amylase, lipase, pancreatic proteases (break down protein)LI – absorbs water and electrolytes, collect food residue for excretion

11 10:3 Utilization of Nutrients
MetabolismActual use of nutrientsProcess in which nutrients are used by the cells for body functionsCellular respiration occurs to break down nutrients to produce ATPBasal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – amount of energy needed to maintain lifeExtra nutrients are stored to use in the futureBody uses and needs energy continuously so the body stores nutrients for future use. Stored nutrients are used to provide energy when food intake is not adequate for energy needs.- Energy needed for voluntary work and involuntary work11

12 Measuring Food EnergyWhen the body metabolized nutrients to produce ATP, heat is also generatedAmount of heat produced is how we measure energy content of the foodCalorie – unit used to measure heat releasedLipids – 9 calories per gramCarbs & proteins – 4 calories per gramVitamins, Minerals and Water – 0 calories per gramIndividual’s caloric requirementsHow many calories are needed in a 24-hour periodVaries from person to person as well as age, activity, size

13 Measuring Food Energy General guidelines for weight maintenance
1 pound body fat = 3,500 caloriesTo lose 1 pound – decrease of 3,500 calories or use 3,500 calories during exerciseDecrease 500 calories per day, person would lose 1 pound in a weekTo gain 1 pound – increase 3,500 caloriesIncrease 500 calories per day, person would gain 1 pound in a weekSlow steady gain/loss of 1 – 2 pounds per week is an efficient and safe form of weight control13

14 10:4 Maintenance of Good Nutrition
Good nutrition is the best way of achieving and maintaining good healthBalanced dietTable 10-4 and 10-5 (pg 235 – 236)If food is not appealing, people will not eat it even if it is healthyConsider variety, taste, color, aroma, texture, and general likes and dislikes

15 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits
USDA has published a booklet on nutritional principles called Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for AmericansEat a variety of foodsMaintain healthy weightChoose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterolPlenty of vegetables, fruits, and grain productsSugars, salt, and sodium in moderationAlcohol, if consumed, in moderation

16 Food Habits Affect Nutrition
Habits can be based on cultural or religious beliefsTable 10-6 (pg 237)Unusual habits are not necessarily bad; must be evaluatedSuggesting changes takes tact, patience, and imaginationDifficult to change since most habits are formed in childhood; change can be slow

17 10:5 Therapeutic DietsModification of normal diet used to improve specific health conditionNormally prescribed by physician and planned by dietitianMay change nutrients, caloric content, and/or textureMay seem strange and even unpleasant to patient

18 Regular or Standard Diet
Balanced dietMay have slight calorie reductionOmit: rich desserts, cream sauces, salad dressings, and fried foodsUsed for: ambulatory patients (outpatient)

19 Liquid Diet Clear and full liquids Liquid foods at body temperature
Not nutritional, only for short termLiquid foods at body temperatureClear: carbohydrates and waterFull: clear liquids plus other liquid itemsUses – after surgery, acute infections, digestive problems, to replace lost fluids, and in preparation for X-rays of the digestive tractClear: apple or grape juice, fat-free broth, plain gelatin, fruit ice, ginger ale, tea, black coffee (with sugar)Full: clear + strained soups, cerals, fruit and veggy juices, yogurt, hot cocoa, custard, ice cream, pudding, sherbet and eggnog

20 Soft DietSimilar to a regular diet, but foods require little chewing and are easy to digestOmit: meat, shellfish, coarse cereals, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, raw fruits and veggies, nuts and coconutUses – after surgery, patients with infections, digestive disorders, and chewing problems

21 Diabetic Diet Used for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, type 2)
Body doesn’t produce enough insulin (a hormone, protein produced in pancreas) to properly metabolize carbs (sugar)Omit: sugar-heavy foodsType 2 develops over life due to diet or enviro factors. Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. People with diabetes have problems converting food to energy. After a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy.People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not use insulin properly. Eventually, the pancreas cannot make enough insulin for the body’s needs. As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy. Over the years, high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve problems, gum infections, and amputation.

22 Calorie-Controlled Diet
Low-calorie – used for patients who are overweight; avoid or limit high-calorie foodsHigh-calorie – used for patients who are underweight, have anorexia nervosa, bulimia, hyperthyroidism (over-active), or cancerExtra protein and carbohydratesAvoid high-bulk foods (fibrous foods)Avoid high-fat foods (fried, pastries, cheese)

23 Low-Cholesterol Diet Restricts foods containing cholesterol
Limit foods high in saturated fatsBeef, pork, egg yolk, cheese, shellfishUsed for - patients with atherosclerosis and heart disease

24 Fat-Restricted Diet Also called low-fat diet Omit: foods high in fat
Used for - patients with gallbladder and liver disease, obesity, and certain heart diseases

25 Sodium-Restricted Diet
Also called low-sodium or low-salt dietsAvoid or limit addition of salt; avoid salt-rich foodsPickles, olives, processed cheese, smoked fishUsed for - cardiovascular diseases

26 Protein Diet Protein-rich foods: meats, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs
High-protein for children and adolescents for additional growth, pregnant or lactating women, surgery, burns, fevers, or infectionsLow-protein for certain kidney or renal diseases and certain allergic conditions

27 Bland DietEasily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tractOmit: fried food, pastries, raw fruit and veggies, smoked and salted meats, olives, avocado, coffeeUsed for - patients with ulcers, colitis, and other digestive diseases

28 Low-Residue Diet Eliminate or limit foods high in bulk and fiber
Omit: raw fruit and veggies, whole-grain breads, seeds, beans, fried foodsUsed for - patients with digestive or rectal diseases such as colitis (inflamed colon) or diarrhea

29 Other Therapeutic Diets
Other diets may be ordered that restrict or increase certain nutrientsCheck prescribed diet and ask questions if foods seem incorrectTry to include patient’s likes if they are allowed on dietIf patient will not eat the foods on diet, the diet will not contribute to good nutrition

Шекспир, - уточнил Хейл.  - Гамлет. - Самообразование за тюремной решеткой.

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