Hdapps Essay

Sexual Violence Prevention and Education Training for UC Davis Community Members

UC Davis is part of a national effort to provide education, prevention, and response to the issues of sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and stalking.  Addressing these issues is a part of the University’s commitment to providing students with a healthy and safe learning environment.  A key component of this safe learning environment is an atmosphere free of violence, coercion, and fear.

As part of this effort, all members of the UC community — students, staff, faculty and other academic appointees — are required to receive sexual violence prevention and intervention training and education regularly.  Topics covered in the programs include:

  • Definitions of sexual assault, sexual harassment, dating and domestic violence, stalking, and consent
  • Social norms which contribute to violence
  • Bystander intervention
  • Confidential campus and community resources
  • Reporting options

Information for Undergraduate Students

UC Davis requires that all incoming undergraduate students complete mandatory sexual violence intervention and prevention (VIP) training within the first six weeks of their beginning classes at UC Davis.  VIP training for undergraduate students will be conducted by the Center for Advocacy Resources and Education (CARE).  All undergraduate students new to UC Davis in 2017-18 are required to receive this training.

  • Students who were new to UC Davis in Fall Quarter 2017 and did not complete the VIP requirement are currently unable to register for Winter 2018 classes until they complete the requirement.
  • Students who are new to UC Davis in Winter Quarter 2018 are expected to complete the VIP requirement by Thursday, February 1, 2018. A registration hold will be placed on the accounts of students who do not meet this deadline.  The registration hold will prevent them from registering for Spring 2018 classes.
  • Undergraduate students can complete the VIP requirement by watching a recording of the 60-minute VIP presentation and answering a series of multiple choice questions.

Questions? Send an email to the Violence Intervention and Prevention program at vipatucd@ucdavis.edu

Information for Professional and Graduate Students

UC Davis requires that all incoming graduate and professional students complete mandatory sexual violence intervention and prevention (SVPT) training within the first six weeks of their beginning classes at UC Davis.

  • Graduate and professional students who were new to UC Davis in Fall 2017 and did not complete the VIP requirement are currently unable to register for Winter Quarter/Spring Semester 2018 classes until they complete the requirement.
  • Graduate and professional students who are new to UC Davis in Winter Quarter 2018 are expected to complete the VIP requirement by Thursday, February 1, 2018. A registration hold will be placed on the accounts of students who do not meet this deadline.  The registration hold will prevent them from registering for Spring Quarter/ Fall Semester 2018 classes.
  • Graduate and professional students can complete the SVPT requirement by watching a recording of the 90-minute SVPT presentation and answer a series of essay and short answer questions.

Questions?Send a message to theSexual Violence Prevention program atSVPT@ucdavis.edu.

Information for Staff, Faculty, and Academic Appointees

Faculty and staff supervisors are legally required to complete two hours of sexual harassment prevention training every two years, and new faculty and supervisors are required to take training within 90 days of hire. Starting January 2016, a systemwide faculty/supervisor training and education program was implemented that revised the content in the sexual harassment prevention training so that it meets UC’s systemwide curriculum. It also includes additional training for those who work directly with students such as faculty student advisors. Faculty and supervisors also receive training on their legal obligations to report sexual violence. In addition, faculty and supervisors will receive other violence prevention training on an annual basis reminding them of their obligation and processes for notifying Title IX offices about sexual violence and sexual harassment.

Staff and academic appointees who are not supervisors will also be required to complete sexual harassment and sexual violence prevention training. UC’s systemwide staff training and education program requires new employees to receive training within the first six weeks of hire. All staff will receive training annually. The new training will include information on their responsibility to report sexual violence and sexual harassment if the incident involves a student.

Questions? Contact Staff Development and Professional Services at sdps@ucdavis.edu or 530.752.1766.

Additional Educational and Training Resources

The University CARE advocate provides educational programs to many campus and community groups, including residence halls, sororities, fraternities, staff, athletic teams, student clubs and academic courses.  These programs are tailored to meet the needs of individual audiences, including films, discussion groups, lectures, role-plays, and communication exercises.

The Harassment & Discrimination Assistance and Prevention Program offers many different kinds of workshops on sexual harassment and sexual violence. Workshops are designed for academics, supervisors, non-supervisory staff, teaching assistants, students, and student employees, and can be tailored to meet the unique needs of specific groups or departments.  

Other educational resources include:

A smart TV, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV, is a television set with integrated Internet and interactive "Web 2.0" features. Smart TV is a technological convergence between computers and flatscreen television sets and set-top boxes. Besides the traditional functions of television sets and set-top boxes provided through traditional broadcasting media, these devices can also provide Internet TV, online interactive media, over-the-top content (OTT), as well as on-demandstreaming media, and home networking access.[2][3]

Smart TV should not be confused with Internet TV, IPTV or Web television. Internet TV refers to receiving television content over the Internet instead of traditional systems (terrestrial, cable and satellite) (although Internet itself is received by these methods). IPTV is one of the Internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters. Web television is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV.

In smart TVs, the operating system is preloaded or is available through the set-top box. The software applications or "apps" can be preloaded into the device, or updated or installed on demand via an app store or marketplace, in a similar manner to how the apps are integrated in modern smartphones.[4][5][6][7][8]

The technology that enables smart TVs is also incorporated in external devices such as set-top boxes and some Blu-ray players, game consoles, digital media players, hotel television systems, smartphones, and other network-connected interactive devices that utilize television-type display outputs.[9][10] These devices allow viewers to find and play videos, movies, TV shows, photos and other content from the Web, cable or satellite TV channel, or from a local storage device.


In the early 1980s, "intelligent" television receivers were introduced in Japan. The addition of an LSI chip with memory and a character generator to a television receiver enabled Japanese viewers to receive a mix of programming and information transmitted over spare lines of the broadcast television signal.[11] A patent was published in 1994[12] (and extended the following year)[13] for an "intelligent" television system, linked with data processing systems, by means of a digital or analog network. Apart from being linked to data networks, one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines, according to a user's demand, and process their needs. The mass acceptance of digital television in late 2000s and early 2010s greatly improved smart TVs. Major TV manufacturers have announced production of smart TVs only, for their middle-end to high-end TVs in 2015.[14][15][16] Smart TVs are expected to become the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. At the beginning of 2016, Nielsen reported that 29 percent of those with incomes over $75,000 a year had a smart TV.[17]


A smart TV device is either a television set with integrated Internet capabilities or a set-top box for television that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary basic television set. Smart TVs may be thought of as an information appliance or the computer system from a handheld computer integrated within a television set unit, as such a smart TV often allows the user to install and run more advanced applications or plugins/addons based on a specific platform. Smart TVs run a complete operating system or mobile operating system software providing a platform for application developers.[18][19]

Smart TV platforms or middleware have a public Software development kit (SDK) and/or Native development kit (NDK) for apps so that third-party developers can develop applications for it, and an app store so that the end-users can install and uninstall apps themselves. The public SDK enables third-party companies and other interactive application developers to “write” applications once and see them run successfully on any device that supports the smart TV platform or middleware architecture which it was written for, no matter who the hardware manufacturer is.

Smart TVs deliver content (such as photos, movies and music) from other computers or network attached storage devices on a network using either a Digital Living Network Alliance / Universal Plug and Play media server or similar service program like Windows Media Player or Network-attached storage (NAS), or via iTunes. It also provides access to Internet-based services including traditional broadcast TV channels, catch-up services, video-on-demand (VOD), electronic program guide, interactive advertising, personalisation, voting, games, social networking, and other multimedia applications.[20] Smart TV enables access to movies, shows, video games, apps and more. Some of those apps include Netflix, Spotify, YouTube, and Amazon.[21]


Smart TV devices also provide access to user-generated content (either stored on an external hard drive or in cloud storage) and to interactive services and Internet applications, such as YouTube, many using HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) adaptive streaming.[22] Smart TV devices facilitate the curation of traditional content by combining information from the Internet with content from TV providers. Services offer users a means to track and receive reminders about shows[23] or sporting events,[24] as well as the ability to change channels for immediate viewing. Some devices feature additional interactive organic user interface / natural user interface technologies for navigation controls and other human interaction with a Smart TV, with such as second screen companion devices,[25][26] spatial gestures input like with Xbox Kinect,[27][28] and even for speech recognition for natural language user interface.[29]


Smart TV develops new features to satisfy consumers and companies, such as new payment processes. LG and PaymentWall have collaborated to allow consumers to access purchased apps, movies, games, and more using a remote control, laptop, tablet, or smartphone. This is intended for an easier and more convenient way for checkout.



See also: List of smart TV platforms and middleware software

Smart TV technology and software is still evolving, with both proprietary and open sourcesoftware frameworks already available. These can run applications (sometimes available via an 'app store' digital distributionplatform), interactive on-demand media, personalized communications, and have social networking features.[30][31][32][33]

There are many Smart TV platforms used for individual purposes. Smart TV owners desire the most successful platform possible for their Smart TV. For this reason, platforms are ranked from best to worst. HbbTV, provided by the Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV association, CE-HTML, part of Web4CE, OIPF, part of HbbTV, and Tru2way are framework platforms managed by technology businesses.

Android TV, Boxee, Firefox OS, Frog, Google TV, Horizon TV, httvLink, Inview, Kodi Entertainment Center, MeeGo, Mediaroom, OpenTV, Opera TV, Plex, Roku, RDK, which is Reference Development Kit, Smart TV Alliance, ToFu Media Platform, Ubuntu TV, and Yahoo! Smart TV are framework platforms managed by individual companies.

Current Smart TV platforms used by vendors are Amazon, Apple, Google, Haier, Hisense, Hitachi, Insigna, LG, Microsoft, Netgear, Panasonic, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TCL, TiVO, Toshiba, Sling Media, and Western Digital. Sony, Panasonic, Samsung, LG, and Roku TV are some platforms ranked under the best Smart TV platforms.[34]

Social networking[edit]

See also: Social media and television

Some smart TV platforms come prepackaged, or can be optionally extended, with social networking technology capabilities. The addition of social networking synchronization to smart TV and HTPC platforms may provide an interaction with both on-screen content and other viewers than is currently available to most televisions, while simultaneously providing a much more cinematic experience of the content than is currently available with most computers.[35]


Some smart TV platforms also support interactive advertising, addressable advertising with local advertising insertion and targeted advertising,[36] and other advanced advertising features such as ad telescoping[37] using VOD and DVR, enhanced TV for consumer call-to-action and audience measurement solutions for ad campaign effectiveness.[38][39] The marketing and trading possibilities offered by Smart TVs are sometimes summarized by the term t-commerce. Taken together, this bidirectional data flow means that smart TVs can be and are used for clandestine observation of the owners.[40] Even in sets that are not configured off-the-shelf to do so, default security measures are often weak and will allow hackers to easily break into the TV.[41]

Security and privacy[edit]

There is evidence that a smart TV is vulnerable to attacks. Some serious security bugs have been discovered, and some successful attempts to run malicious code to get unauthorized access were documented on video. There is evidence that it is possible to gain root access to the device, install malicious software, access and modify configuration information for a remote control, remotely access and modify files on TV and attached USB drives, access camera and microphone.[42] There have also been concerns that hackers may be able to remotely turn on the microphone on a smart TV and be able to eavesdrop on private conversations.

Anticipating growing demand for an antivirus for a smart TV, some security software companies are already working with partners in digital TV field on the solution. At this writing it seems like there is only one antivirus for smart TVs available: 'Neptune', a cloud-based antimalware system developed by Ocean Blue Software in partnership with Sophos. However, antivirus company Avira has joined forces with digital TV testing company Labwise to work on software to protect against potential attacks.[43] The privacy policy for Samsung's Smart TVs has been called Orwellian (a reference to George Orwell and the dystopian world of constant surveillance he depicted in 1984), and compared to Telescreens because of eavesdropping concerns.[44][45]

Hackers have misused Smart TV's abilities such as operating source codes for applications and its unsecured connection to the Internet. Passwords, IP address data, and credit card information can be accessed by hackers and even companies for advertisement. A company caught in the act is Vizio.[citation needed] The confidential documents, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013–2016, include details on CIA's software capabilities, such as the ability to compromise smart TVs.[46]


High-end Samsung Smart TVs stopped working for at least seven days after a software update.[47] Application providers are rarely upgrading Smart TV apps to the latest version; for example, Netflix does not support older TV versions with new Netflix upgrades.[48]

Restriction of access[edit]

Internet websites can block smart TV access to content at will, or tailor the content that will be received by each platform.[49]Google TV-enabled devices were blocked by NBC, ABC, CBS, and Hulu from accessing their Web content since the launch of Google TV in October 2010. Google TV devices were also blocked from accessing any programs offered by Viacom’s subsidiaries.[50]

Market share[edit]

According to a report from research group NPD In-Stat, in 2012 only about 12 million U.S. households had their Web-capable TVs connected to the Internet, although an estimated 25 million households owned a set with the built-in network capability. In-Stat predicted that by 2016, 100 million homes in North America and western Europe would be using television sets blending traditional programming with internet content.[51]

The number of households using over-the-top television services has rapidly increased over the years. In 2015, 52% of U.S. households subscribed to Netflix, Amazon Prime, or Hulu Plus; 43% of pay-TV subscribers also used Netflix, and 43% of adults used some streaming video on demand service at least monthly. Additionally, 19% of Netflix subscribers shared their subscription with people outside of their households. Ten percent of adults at the time showed interest in HBO Now.[52]

See also[edit]


  1. ^Jeremy Toeman 41 (October 20, 2010). "Why Connected TVs Will Be About the Content, Not the Apps". Mashable.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  2. ^"Internet TV and The Death of Cable TV, really". Techcrunch.com. October 24, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  3. ^"Smart TV competition heats up market". Asianewsnet.net. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  4. ^"Smart TV Shower Opens Smart Life". Koreaittimes.com. October 7, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  5. ^Chacksfield, Marc (May 12, 2010). "Intel: Smart TV revolution 'biggest since move to colour' – The wonders of widgets?". Techradar.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  6. ^"Google, With Intel and Sony, Unveils Software for 'Smart' TVs". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. May 20, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  7. ^Katzmaier, David (September 8, 2010). "Poll: Smart TV or dumb monitor?". News.cnet.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  8. ^Intel and Smart TV. intel.com. Retrieved on November 11, 2010.
  9. ^"Roku 2: Same Old (But Still Good), Same Old". Gizmodo.com. August 4, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  10. ^Gene Gregory (1985), Japanese Electronics Technology, Enterprise and Innovation, page 351, Japan Times
  11. ^"espacenet – Original document". Worldwide.espacenet.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  12. ^"espacenet – Bibliographic data". Worldwide.espacenet.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  13. ^Dieter Bohn. "All of Sony's new smart TVs run on Android TV". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 17, 2015. 
  14. ^"CES 2015: New Samsung Smart TVs Will Be Powered by Tizen OS". Tech Times. Retrieved June 17, 2015. 
  15. ^"LG to show off webOS 2.0 smart TV at CES 2015". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 17, 2015. 
  16. ^Winslow, George (January 4, 2016). "CES 2016: Five Things to Watch". Broadcasting & Cable: 10–14. 
  17. ^Previous post Next post (September 7, 2010). "Android Holds the Key to Samsung's Smart TV Plans". Wired. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  18. ^Previous post Next post (May 20, 2010). "Google Introduces Google TV, New Android OS". Wired. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  19. ^"A first look at Google TV's new apps". Gigaom.com. September 15, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  20. ^"Samsung Smart TV - TV Has Never Been This Smart". Samsung Electronics America. Retrieved September 30, 2016. 
  21. ^"Netgear unveils NeoTV Streaming Player, takes another shot at the smart TV market". Engadget.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  22. ^"BuddyTV debuts Google TV app, with iPad and iPhone link". GeekWire. October 28, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2012. 
  23. ^"Thuuz Android App for Google TV Gives DISH Customers Instant Alerts of Most Exciting Moments in Sports". Bloomberg. January 8, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012. 
  24. ^https://techcrunch.com/2012/06/04/microsoft-introduces-second-screen-feature-xbox-smartglass/ Microsoft Introduces Second-Screen Feature, Xbox SmartGlass
  25. ^http://mashable.com/2012/06/04/xbox-smartglass/ Xbox SmartGlass Brings the Second Screen to Games and Videos
  26. ^Robinson, Blake (November 4, 2010). "Last.fm Gesture Controls for Xbox Kinect". Mashable.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011. 
  27. ^Narcisse, Evan (December 8, 2011). "Wave Hello: Microsoft's Requiring Kinect Functionality for All Future Apps Built for Xbox 360". Kotaku.com. Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  28. ^http://appleinsider.com/articles/13/01/10/2013-smart-tvs-dismissed-as-not-that-smart-leaving-opportunity-for-apple 2013 smart TVs dismissed as 'not that smart,' leaving opportunity for Apple
  29. ^Devindra Hardawar (December 8, 2010). "Why your TV is the new app battleground". Venturebeat.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  30. ^BBC News – Google launches smart TV service. bbc.co.uk (May 20, 2010). Retrieved on November 11, 2010.
  31. ^Stan Schroeder 230 (May 17, 2010). "Google, Intel and Sony to Introduce Smart TV". Mashable.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  32. ^"Opinion: Will Google's Smart TV Finally Bring Apps and Web Browsing To The Living Room?". Socialtimes.com. May 17, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  33. ^"The 5 best Smart TV platforms in the world 2016". TechRadar. Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  34. ^"TVs get smart with Internet access in 2011". Abc15.com. August 23, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2012. 
  35. ^Daniel Cooper. "Sky's AdSmart brings targeted advertising to your TV". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved June 17, 2015. 
  36. ^"Ad Telescoping". Retrieved June 17, 2015. 
  37. ^"Nagra and Sigma partnered on advanced advertising" October 3, 2011 - Cheseaux, Switzerland, and Toronto, Canada
  38. ^""NAGRA-OpenTV and Time Warner Cable Media Extend Advanced Advertising Partnership" March 5, 2012 - Cheseaux, Switzerland". Retrieved September 10, 2016. 
  39. ^"Is your TV spying on YOU?". 
  40. ^"Your Smart TV Could Be Hacked to Spy On You". 
  41. ^Niemietz; et al. "Not so Smart: On Smart TV Apps"(PDF). International Workshop on Secure Internet of Things. Retrieved September 15, 2015. 
  43. ^"Samsung smart TV policy allows company to listen in on users". The Independent. February 9, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  44. ^Not in front of the telly: Warning over 'listening' TV BBC News, 2015
  45. ^Shane, Scott; Mazzetti, Mark; Rosenberg, Matthew (7 March 2017). "WikiLeaks Releases Trove of Alleged C.I.A. Hacking Documents". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March 2017. 
  46. ^"Samsung TV owners furious after software update leaves sets unusable". The Guardian. London. August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  47. ^"Netflix Recommended TVs | Built for a better Netflix experience". devices.netflix.com. Retrieved September 24, 2017. 
  48. ^"Big Networks Block Web Shows From Google TV". New York Times. October 21, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  49. ^"Comedy Central, MTV now blocking Google TV". CNET.com. November 22, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  50. ^"100 Million TVs will have internet connections by 2016". 
  51. ^"U.S. Connected-TV Penetration Passes 50% | Multichannel". www.multichannel.com. Retrieved November 29, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Smart TV.
A smart TV displaying content from a museum website; unlike traditional TVs, a smart TV enables the viewer to interact with icons or images on the screen. For example, on a museum website, viewers can "click" on items depicted onscreen to learn more about them.
LG Smart TV using the web browser.

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